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04 December 2010 @ 08:13 pm
Ozone and Rapid Climate Variation  
My take
Planets' positions influence the cyclicity of solar surface activity by gravitational tidal influence (less probably by EMF influence), (a new theory implies solar activity regulates planet alignment) and the Earth's tectonic and volcanic activity by amplification of lunar tidal influence on the surface and plastic mantle. The influence goes deeper affecting the core rotation speed, axis location and orientation, evidenced by wobbles such as nutations in synch with lunar orbital variation and ice ages due to precession that correlate with major planet alignment. Lunar influence is also affected by solar gyre and calculating the influence of the continually varying push and pull exerted on this planet is stupifyingly complex. Even more complex is the calculation of the climate product of such influence.

Here I’m looking at one small aspect that has a major, probably dominant role in rapid climate variation and longer term climate temperature.

First to note is that variation in solar activity correlates with variation in strength of the solar magnetic field (see wiki). The field presents a barrier to cosmic particles (GCRs) formed of very high energy protons, electrons and ionized lightweight element nuclei with protons being the main component. The strength and extent of the magnetic field influence regulates the volume of GCRs reaching the Earth’s magnetic field. Extent and strength have declined. The strength of the solar EMF shows some correlation with the strength of the Earth’s EMF and the local field determines the depth of penetration and so volume of GCRs reaching the lower layers and surface. The EMF strength has declined.

High solar activity evidenced by sunspot abundance produces higher levels of solar UV and proton emissions. Proton levels vary the population of N ions that precipitate down. Proton enhanced N ion precipitation enhances ozone breakdown, so increasing the influence of UV penetration into the ozone layer and to the surface. The consequences of high proton incursion are more rapid production and destruction of ozone by UV, (N ions tipping the scale to depletion) so a greater amount of time is spent in the unreactive-to-UV phase and that allows higher levels of UV to reach the surface. Reducing ozone density obviously increases UV penetration to the surface.

A stratosphere penetrating eruption causes rapid stratosphere cooling that is sustained for decades and subsequent penetrating eruptions compound cooling. Ozone forms more slowly with cooling, seasonal stratospheric polar ice clouds become more plentiful as crystal formation increases due to aerosol abundance enabling droplet formation. Crystals also form a base for the production of ozone depleting compounds that amplify the seasonal depletion. Amongst eruption ejecta are WV, sulphates and HCLs (a chlorine source) and when such eruptions occur in short order they amplify cooling to the point that WV, a source of H ions that compound the break down of O3, becomes scarce due to rapid crystal formation. Crystals precipitate out of the stratosphere more readily than the WV phase, reducing the H2O volume. As WV, H2O is a warming agent by absorption of IR, as crystals a cooling agent due to albedo each moving the temperature in an opposite direction when volume is sufficient.

Crystals are important because their mass is far greater than WV and so more readily precipitate out of the stratosphere and because their influence on temperature is the opposite sign of WV.

The loss of WV to crystals initially amplifies moderate cooling caused by ozone depletion, aerosol dimming and sulphate albedo that are products of eruptions that change the stratosphere's chemistry. Crystal formation removes the dimming effect of aerosols, precipitation removes their cooling influence and a source of H ions by breakdown of H2O. The increased depth of UV penetration amplifying ozone formation produces a slow recovery, exceeding the ongoing N ion precipitation depletion source.

Consequences of ozone depletion include shallow rapid warming of the oceans by UV only slightly influenced by cloud that is mostly transparent to UV, amplification of ozone formation from human emissions and via higher isoprenes production by biomass (mainly trees, ferns and lichen), presumably the latter is a defence response.

Human intervention over centuries by deforestation has greatly depleted what was a strong moderator of climate directly by WV regulation and indirectly by isoprenes production, air quality controls have depleted a strong human cooling influence on the climate as cloud forming aerosols and sulphates that have a high albedo. (Now we are reducing the compensation paid to nature in the form of CO2 that speeds sapling growth and causes mature trees to add bulk as well as greening the planet at the rate of  1% every ~3 years.)

Ozone is recovering. This is very likely due to the drying of the upper tropo- and stratosphere coincident with the absence of recent eruption penetration.

Still to be explored; the influence of radio waves on the ionosphere, their influence and that of the declining EMF on the lower atm. layers, the influence of ozone volume, stratospheric H2O and temperature on air currents, especially the cells - Hadley, Ferrel and Polar, trade winds, ENSO, global SST and on very long term lower tropospheric climate.

Images source (Medical Journal of Aus.)  Click pics for a larger view

Please note that this is a work in progress, as knowledge of new factors becomes available to me I will modify accordingly.

Additional reading (beware of the funding biased!):
Carbon dioxide negativity 

Climate Sensitivity of Ozone
Sensitivity of Ozone Formation To Photons
A scaling analysis of ozone photochemistry

Correlation between Cosmic Rays and Ozone Depletion
High Energy Gamma-ray Emission, Energetic Electrons and Solar Proton Events
Ionosphere-atmosphere interaction during solar proton events

Ozone and UVR trends from 1998 to 2005 at Diekirch (L)
Penetration of solar UVB radiation in shallow tropical waters 
Publications related to NSF UV Monitoring Network

Organic Air Pollutants
Concentration variation of isoprene and its implications for peak ozone concentration
Effect of forest canopy on the tropospheric ozone concentration of Indian States
Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols Through Photooxidation of Isoprene
Effects of growth carbon dioxide concentration on isoprene emissions from plants

Evidence for ice particles in the tropical stratosphere from in-situ measurements

Volcanic eruptions and climate

Sun, Jupiter, Saturn: spin-orbit coupling?
Jupiter's Dance
Lunar Extremes
Solar Retrograde Motion update
Outer Planets in 2009
The Cyclicity of Sunspots
Two planets align with harvest moon

[Beware of agenda driven - evidence light regulation advocates]

Ozone Depletion’s Lessons For Global Warming
Ozone And Carbon Dioxide
Ozone - (Antarctic Ozone Hole, Arctic Ozone Depletion, Arctic / Antarctic Ozone Depletion Comparison, Ozone Depletion Mechanism)
Laughing Gas Knocks Out CO2
N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels
Global oceanic chlorofluorocarbon inventory
Air-sea fluxes of biogenic bromine from the tropical and N. Atlantic Ocean
CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!

I don't have access to/can't find data that would enable me to visualise the influence of the mass of the planets relative to distance and position in relation to the Earth and relative to solar gyre at the time of this planet's geological events such as major eruptions and major tectonic movement.
My imagined visual representation is of the centre being a black spot, the earth a blue spot and bands of green of varying thickness and hue representing the orbits with the combined gravity pull of planets in each as distance from the centre increases. A second representation would simply put the Earth at the centre.

Conspiracy Fun
Why is Jupiter classified? [2] Why nuke Jupiter when asteroids and comets do it all the time?